[1. Economic Growth]
  • Health/Mortality
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Malaria
  • Fertility
  • Demographic Transition
[2. Inequality]
[3. Definition of Development]
[4. Market Failure]

[1. Economic Growth and Fertility/Health/Demographic Transition]


  • Mechanism
    • Lowering fertility, more resource is distributed into each child
      • Human Capital
      • Nutrition
    • Lowering fertility, total size of population decreases
      • Pessimism: Malthus, Ehrlich
      • Optimism: Kuznets,Simon
      • Neutralism: Bloom and Freeman
    • Lowering fertility, child and maternal health status is improved
      • Reduce high order birth
      • Reduce too young and old birth
      • More spacing
      • Prevent unsafe abortion
      • Explain Bleakley story, and relate this to human capital accumulation
    • With mortality decline, country enjoys benefit from demographic dividend


  • Mechanism
    • Healthy people are more productive
    • Living longer, people save more. So increase investment.
    • Living longer, people invest human capital more
    • Decreasing mortality rate, total population is increased
    • Healthy country attracts more FDI
    • With fertility decline, country benefits from demographic dividend
  • Empirical Evidence
    • Macro Level
      • Bloom, Canning, Sevilla
      • Acemoglu and Johnson
      • Pritchett and Summers
      • Weil
    • Micro Level
      • Schultz
      • Strauss
      • Bleakley(Malaria):Early child insult
      • Weil and others(Malaria):non or negative impact in the first 30 years, 3% in long run.
      • Young(HIV/AIDS)
      • Bloom, Mahal(HIV/AIDS)
# Merson et. al.'s textbook Chapter 13 provides good review

Population neutralist

  • Bloom and Freeman(1996)(Bloom and Freeman(1998):Fertility Increase and Mortality Decline have different effect)

[2.Poverty Reduction/Inequality and XXX]


    • Kawachi
    • Preston Curve
    • Deaton

[3. Definition of Development]

Bob Lucas: Development as Economic Growth
Human Development Index: Income, Education, and Health
Human Poverty Index:
Amartya Sen: Development as Freedom

[Market Failure]

  • Public goods
  • Externalities
  • Information Asymmetries
    • Adverse Selection
    • Moral Hazard
  • Inequality of initial resource distribution