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1. Fertility-Mortality Relationship

Fertility on Health Improvement

  • Direct Effect
    • Decrease number of pregnancy and birth
    • Decrease number of high risk pregnancy and birth
      • First-time Mother
      • Higher-order pregnancies
      • Pregnancy at very young maternal ages
      • Pregnancy at old maternal ages
      • Short interbirth intervals
      • Unwanted pregnancies ending in unsafe abortions
      • Pregnancies for women already in poor health

  • Indirect Effect
    • Less Children, more resource is devoted to each child and mother
    • Delaying first marriage, mother can complete education, work, and earn more money to improve living standard of family


Mortality on Fertility Decline

  • Ideal Number of Surviving Children
  • Infant/Child Mortality
    • Replacement Theory
    • Uncertain Theory
  • Unwanted Children
    • Unwanted Children
    • Mistiming
  • US and France are exception
  • Increasing mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa and Former-Soviet Union
  • Conventional explanations for the fertility transition have involved the rising cost of children because of urbanization, the growth of incomes and nonagricultural employment, the increased value of education, rising female employment, child labor laws and compulsory education, and declining infant and child mortality

2. Demographic Transition



3. Population Size


4. Below-Replacement Level and Aging (Immigration/Social Security)



5. Africa/Fertility Decline